As the leader of Xuange Electronics, a well-known transformer manufacturer with 14 years of experience in producing high frequency transformers and inductors, I constantly seek to introduce the technical aspects of our products to our customers and industry professionals. In this article I would like to discuss the equivalent circuit of a real transformer to better understand electrical transformers and their functions.

Practical transformers are an important part of many electrical systems, including consumer power supplies, industrial power supplies, new energy power supplies, LED power supplies, etc. At Xuange Electronics, we are always committed to producing environmentally friendly and qualified products. Our high frequency transformers and inductors are UL certified and certified by ISO9001, ISO14001, ATF16949. These certificates ensure the quality and reliability of our products and we are very proud to meet and exceed industry standards.15


When discussing the equivalent circuit of a real transformer, it is necessary to understand the basic principles of transformer operation. A transformer is a static device that transmits electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors (primary and secondary coils) without any direct electrical connection between them. The primary coil is connected to an alternating current (AC) source, which creates a magnetic field that induces a voltage in the secondary coil, thereby transferring power from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit.

Now, let us delve into the equivalent circuit of a real transformer, which is a simplified representation of the behavior of a transformer under various operating conditions. The equivalent circuit consists of several components, including primary and secondary winding resistance (R1 and R2, respectively), primary and secondary winding reactance (X1 and X2, respectively), and mutual inductance (M) between the primary and secondary coils . In addition, core loss resistance (RC) and magnetizing reactance (XM) represent core loss and magnetizing current respectively.

In a real transformer, the primary and secondary winding resistances (R1 and R2) cause ohmic losses in the conductors, causing power to be dissipated as heat. The primary and secondary winding reactances (X1 and X2) represent the inductive reactance of the winding, which affects the current and voltage drop across the coil. Mutual inductance (M) characterizes the relationship between the primary coil and the secondary coil and determines the power transmission efficiency and transformation ratio.

Core loss resistance (RC) and magnetizing reactance (XM) determine the magnetizing current and core losses in the transformer core. Core losses, also known as iron losses, are caused by hysteresis and eddy currents in the core material, causing energy to be dissipated in the form of heat. Magnetizing reactance represents the inductive reactance associated with the magnetizing current that establishes magnetic flux in the core.

Understanding the equivalent circuit of a real transformer is critical for accurate modeling, analysis, and design of transformer-based systems. By considering the resistance, inductance and mutual elements of the equivalent circuit, engineers can optimize transformer performance, efficiency and reliability in a variety of applications, from new energy and photovoltaics to UPS, robotics, smart homes, security systems, healthcare and communications.


At Xuange Electronics, our strong R&D team is committed to providing innovative solutions for reducing temperature, eliminating noise, and enhancing coupled radiation conductivity of high-frequency transformers and inductors. We continuously strive to improve the performance and quality of our products to meet the ever-changing needs of our customers and industry.

 In summary, the equivalent circuit of a real transformer is a fundamental model for understanding the electrical behavior and characteristics of a transformer. As a transformer manufacturer, we are committed to sharing our technical expertise and knowledge with our customers and partners to facilitate informed decision-making and optimal utilization of our products. We believe that by deepening our understanding of transformer technology, we can contribute to the advancement of electrical engineering and continued innovation in power supply systems.